Consequence Modelling

Discharge and Dispersion is often required to evaluate the consequence of identified hazardous events.

Consequence Modelling


Consequence Modelling refers to the estimation of the credible physical outcomes of loss of containment scenarios involving flammable, explosive and toxic materials with respect to their potential impact on people, assets, or safety functions.




The following screenshots are examples from projects demonstrating the consequences as graphical representations.

Graphical Representation of Lower Flammable Limits

Example of a DNV PHAST output contour showing the consequence modelling results for flammable gas dispersion at various LFL's as a result of a release on an offshore platform.

Graphical Representation of Jet Fire Radiation Contours

Example of a DNV PHAST simulated Jet Fire scenario on an Offshore Platform showing the consequence modelling results for radiation contours.



What software does FSES utilise to conduct Consequence Modelling?

They are various recommended approaches to conducting consequence modelling for accidental releases of hazardous materials, with the potential to cause harm to people, damage to assets and impairment of safety functions, from offshore and onshore installations. FSES’s preferred software is to use DNV PHAST, in which our consultants are fully trained.

What inputs are required by FSES to conduct the Consequence Modelling Study?

As a minimum the following information would be required to conduct the study:

  1. P&ID’s
  2. Facilities Design
  3. Operating Data and Procedures
  4. Heat and Material balances
  5. Equipment Rating and Data Sheets

Based on the project requirements, extra information may be required. This will be highlighted within the Terms of Reference (ToR).

What is the expected output of the Consequence Modelling Study?

On award of the study FSES will issue a project ToR, which will highlight the assumptions that will be made in the study. The ToR will also include the study methodology and data sources that will be utilised. It will also highlight any further information required from the client. Upon acceptance of the ToR, FSES will conduct the consequence modelling. A report will be prepared describing the facility, the scope of work, a detailed methodology and the results of the analysis (i.e. Jet Fire, Pool Fire, Explosion, Toxic Gas Dispersion)It is recommended that once the study has been completed, that a QRA be conducted in order to quantify the risk resulting from a release.




FSES are a globally renowned providers of consequence modelling studies. FSES’s portfolio includes several high profile onshore and offshore  in the Middle East and elsewhere including the Safaniya, Marjan, Zuluf and Hasbah facilities amongst others.
For more information, or to discuss your needs for conducting a consequence modelling study, please contact us using the form below or email [email protected] .


Our Services at FSES

Compliance to the international Standards such as IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 are imperative to meeting the Functional Safety requirements for many processes and have formed part of the quality management systems of many companies. Provision of Functional Safety Services in line with the Phases and Activities detailed in the Safety Life-cycle is an area in which our consultants are able to demonstrated experience and expertise.

Learn more about our services

PHA, HAZID and HAZOP Studies

FSES can provide Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) and HAZard and OPerability (HAZOP) study chairpersons. Our expert PHA facilitators hold certification in conducing HAZOP, HAZAN and CHAZOP.

Functional Safety Training

FSES provide various Functional Training services for all of specific parts of IEC 61508 and its sector derivatives

Consequence Modelling

Discharge and Dispersion is often required to evaluate the consequence of identified hazardous events.

Design Engineering

Functional safety activities are most effective by integration into a well-established and proven quality management system.

Building Risk Assessment

Building Risk Assessment (BRA) is a tool used to assess the risks to people in occupied buildings in the facility.

Escape, Evacuation and Rescue Analysis

Escape, Evacuation and Rescue Analysis ensures that the design of a facility is such that the risk to personnel is kept to within the ALARP region.

Functional Safety Assessment

Independent Management of Functional Safety Assessments, Audits & Support.

Functional Safety Lifecycle and Management

Functional Safety Lifecycle and Management is a key requirement demonstrating how Functional Safety is to be implemented and achieved.

Human Factors

Human factor assessment is a key area in identifying potential hazards which may be instigated by human errors.

Legacy Systems

Legacy Systems Review and Compliance.

Prior Use

Prior Use Assessment.

Proof Testing Procedures

Proof Testing is one of the main requirements to ensure that Functional Safety is maintained throughout the operational phase.

Operation and Maintenance

FSES can carry out review studies and provide consultancy to ensure Functional Safety requirements are maintained during Operation and Maintenance.

Quantitative Risk Assessment

Quantitative of Risk in terms of IRPA, PLL and graphical demonstrations such as FN Plots.

Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Study (RAMS)

Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Study (RAMS) is used as a decision making tool to increase the availability of the system, and thus increase the overall profit as well as reducing the life cycle costs.

Safety Requirements Specification

The Safety Requirements Specification (SRS) is a core document, which is used as the main reference to be followed by designers, installers, and operators of a Safety Instrumented Function (SIF).

SIL Determination

FSES are able to us various methods in identifying SIL targets; qualitatively by Risk Graphs, semi-quantitatively by Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) or fully quantitatively by Fault Tree Analysis (FTA).

SIL Verification

Calculation of Random Hardware Reliability and Architectural Assessments for Safety Instrumented Functions (SIFs)

SIS Conceptual Design

Safety Instrumented System (SIS) Conceptual Design